Could people 800 years ago have benefited from the Marshall Protocol? Did cave men suffer from infection with L-form bacteria? Nobody knows for sure when these stealthy pleiomorphic bacteria first began to infect human beings, but a new study published in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by researchers at Pennsylvania State University suggests that Th1 disease was already common during the middle ages.

The team analyzed 490 skeletons from a London cemetery for Black Death victims – the name given to those people who succumed to the plague epidemic of 1347 to 1351. Black Death – named after the black spots the bubonic form of the plague caused on the skin – was one of the deadliest recorded in human history, killing about 75 million people, according to some estimates, including more than a third of Europe’s population.

Experts have long believed that the Black Death killed indiscriminately regardless of age, sex or level of health because it was so virulent. But anthroplogists Sharon deWitte and James Wood, who led the Penn State team, have demonstrated that the infection did not affect everyone equally.

The anthropologists found that while many perfectly healthy people certainly were cut down, those already in poor health prior to the arrival of the plague were more likely to have perished.

“A lot of people have assumed that the Black Death killed indiscriminately, just because it had such massive mortality,” states DeWitte. “People already in poor health often are more vulnerable in epidemics. “But there’s been a tradition of thinking that the Black Death was this unique case where no one was safe and if you were exposed to the disease that was it. You had three to five days, and then you were dead.”

DeWitte analyzed skeletons unearthed from the East Smithfield cemetery in London, dug especially for plague victims and excavated in the 1980s, for bone and teeth abnormalities that would show that people had health problems before they died of plague.

She found such abnormalities in many skeletons, suggesting these people had experienced malnutrition, iron deficiencies and infections well before succumbing to the Black Death.

Today we understand that, due to the chronic nature of bone deterioration and dental problems, these infections were almost certainly caused by L-form bacteria.

Bone loss results after L-form bacteria create substances that block the Vitamin D Receptor – preventing it from transcribing an enzyme that keeps the level of the hormone/cytokine 1,25-D in check. As 1,25-D rises above a certain range (around 43 pg/ml), it stimulates bone osteoclasts, or cells that remove minerals from the bone. Stimulated osteoclasts dissolve bone material, causing it to be reabsorbed into the bloodstream – leading to osteoporosis and osteopenia.

We are also familiar with the “anemia of chronic disease”, or the fact that people with Th1 disease are frequently deficient in iron. This deficiency is the direct result of the fact that L-form and biofilm bacteria secrete iron-binding complexes called siderophores that remove iron from host proteins, making it available for use by the pathogens.

Futhermore, tooth decay is almost certainly impacted by L-form bacteria, as a wide range of treatment resistant bacteria, including those that persist in bioflims, have been detected in the mouth,[1][2] not to mention the fact that dental immunopathology and subsequent improvement of dental issues is common among patients on the Marshall Protocol.
Thus it comes as no surprise that DeWitte and team found that the proportion of people with such signs of Th1 disease in the cemetery, compared to those who appeared to have been of robust health before the epidemic, indicate that Black Death was somewhat selective in who it killed.

“The Black Death was highly virulent and undoubtedly killed many otherwise healthy people who would have been unlikely to die under normal-mortality conditions,” they wrote. But people already in poor health were more likely to die.”

Those people in poor health were certainly immunosuppressed, thanks to the fact that as L-form and other stealth bacteria accumulate, the pathogens produce substances that block the VDR, causing the innate immune system to become increasingly compromised. It’s no wonder their lives were claimed by the Black Death, just as today people with Th1 disease are easy victims for the HIV virus.


  1. Figdor, D, and G Sundqvist. 2007. “A big role for the very small–understanding the endodontic microbial flora.” Australian dental journal 52(1 Suppl):S38-51. []
  2. Chavez de Paz, Luis E, and Luis Chávez de Paz. 2007. “Redefining the persistent infection in root canals: possible role of biofilm communities.” Journal of endodontics 33(6):652-62. []